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A3o Special Thanks VideoSamsung Galaxy A30 Review 1, Followers, Following, 49 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from A3O (@a3o.a3o). John VI (Portuguese: João VI; – 10 March ), nicknamed "the Clement", was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves from to Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for. Top definition a3o Abbrev. of Alkaline Trio, a punk goth band. Mostly used in online conversations by lazy ass people who won't type the full name. Colonel Casey Tidgewell is the Commander, 49th Operations Group, Holloman AFB, NM. The group is comprised of the 6th Attack Squadron, 9th Attack Squadron, 16th Training Squadron, and 29th Attack Squadron at Holloman AFB, with the st Attack Squadron at Hancock Field ANGB in Syracuse, NY and the d Attack Squadron at March ARB in Riverside, CA.
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On July 9, , a slave revolt led by Rei Amador took control of the capital; they were subjugated the following year. It is linked to Cape Verde by a weekly ferry.
Features of the town include the Presidential Palace , the cathedral , and a cinema. The town is well known for the tchiloli playing.
The wet season runs from October through May while the dry season covers the remaining four months. The following Portuguese international schools are in the city: .
The main hospital of the country is Hospital Ayres de Menezes. Coat of arms. Together, the images form a stunning mosaic of nature in unspoiled grandeur.
Through these photographs, Salgado pays homage to a fragile planet he believes we must all protect. Join our mailing list. ICP Updates. You can change your mind at any time by clicking the unsubscribe link in the footer of any email you receive from us, or by contacting us at digitalcontent icp.
Submit Cancel. The additional populace, full of new requirements, imposed a new organization in the supply of food and other consumer goods, including luxury items.
It took years for the Portuguese to settle in, causing years of chaos in the daily life of Rio; rents doubled, taxes rose, and food was in short supply, requisitioned by the imported nobility.
This soon dispelled popular enthusiasm over the prince regent's arrival. The very shape of the city began to change, with the construction of innumerable new residences, villas and other buildings, and various improvements to services and infrastructure.
Likewise, the presence of the court introduced new standards of etiquette, new fashions and new customs, including a new social stratification.
The long lines waiting to pay their respects and receive favors were a mix of nobles and commoners. The vulgarity of the manners, the familiarity of speech, the insistence of some, the prolixity of others, none of this bored him.
He seemed to forget that he was their master, and remember only that he was their father. Throughout his stay in Brazil, John formalized the creation of a huge number of institutions and public services and boosted the economy, culture and other areas of national life.
All these measures were taken principally because of the practical needs of administering a large empire in a territory previously lacking of these resources, because the predominant idea continued to be that Brazil would remain a colony, given that it was expected that the court would return to its old metropolis once the European political situation returned to normal.
However, these advances became the basis for Brazil's future autonomy. A series of political crises began shortly after his arrival with the invasion of Cayenne in French Guiana in in retaliation for the French invasion of Portugal,  serious economic problems, and a painful trade agreement imposed in by the British, which in practice flooded the small internal market with useless trinkets and disadvantaged exports and the creation of new national industries.
Also, the court was extravagant and wasteful, accumulated privileges on privileges and maintained a legion of sycophants and adventurers.
British consul James Henderson observed that few European courts were as large as that of Portugal. Laurentino Gomes writes that John granted more hereditary titles in his first eight years in Brazil than had been granted in the previous three hundred years of the Portuguese monarchy, not even counting more than five thousand insignia and commendations of the honorific orders of Portugal.
When Napoleon was defeated in , the European powers held the Congress of Vienna to reorganize the political map of the continent.
Portugal participated in these negotiations, but given British machinations contrary to the interests of the House of Braganza , Portugal's ambassador to the Congress, the Count of Palmela , counseled the regent to remain in Brazil, as did the powerful Prince Talleyrand , in order to strengthen the ties between metropolis and colony, including the suggestion to elevate Brazil to the condition of a kingdom united to Portugal.
The representative of the United Kingdom also ended up supporting the idea, which resulted in the effective foundation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves on 16 December , a juridical institution rapidly recognized by other nations.
John's mother Queen Maria died 20 March , opening the road for the regent to assume the throne.
Though he began to govern as king on that date, he was not immediately consecrated as king; he was acclaimed only on 6 February , with grand festivities.
This made any meaningful marriage to John impossible, despite his show of patience, and only the force of convention had them appear together in public.
While Dona Carlota gained many sympathizers, her plots uniformly failed. Despite that, she managed to influence her husband to involve himself more directly in Spanish colonial politics.
These efforts led to the capture of Montevideo in and the annexation of Cisplatina Province in During the same period, problems arose in finding a wife for John's heir apparent, the future Pedro I of Brazil.
Europe at the time considered Brazil distant, backward and unsafe, so it was not a simple task to find suitable candidates. Meanwhile, the situation in Portugal was by no means tranquil.
Absent its monarch and devastated by the Peninsular War and the consequent mass hunger and enormous exodus of emigrants,  the country in practice had become a British protectorate upon the final expulsion of the French.
It was administered by Marshall William Carr Beresford , who governed with an iron fist. From the time John ascended the throne, the Portuguese pressed for his return, initiated liberal rebellions, and formed secret societies with the objective of bringing into session the Portuguese Cortes , which had not met since Similar liberal agitation occurred in Brazil.
In , the Pernambucan Revolt broke out in Recife , a republican movement that established a provisional government in Pernambuco and spread into other Brazilian states; it was put down severely.
A governing junta was set up, with repercussions in Lisbon. It led even to an uprising by the military garrison of Rio de Janeiro itself.
On 30 January , the Cortes met in Lisbon and decreed the formation of a Council of Regency to exercise power in the name of King John.
It freed many political prisoners and demanded the king's immediate return. On 20 April, King John convoked a meeting in Rio to choose deputies to the Constituent Cortes, but the following day, protests in the plaza were put down violently.
In Brazil, the general opinion was that the king's return to Portugal could mean loss of the autonomy Brazil had gained and a return to its prior colonial status.
Under pressure, John tried to find a middle way by sending his son Prince Pedro to Lisbon to grant a constitution and establish the basis of a new government.
The prince, however, already leaning toward liberal ideas, refused. The crisis had gone too far and there was no turning back.
John named Pedro regent for Brazil in his name and left for Lisbon on 25 April after a stay of thirteen years in Brazil, a country he would always miss.
The ships bringing John and his court arrived in Lisbon on 3 July. His return was orchestrated in such a manner as not to imply that the king had been coerced, but in fact a new political environment had already been established.
It called for him to surrender various prerogatives. Dona Carlota refused to follow her husband in agreeing to this, and thus was dispossessed of her political rights and deposed of her title as queen.
Meanwhile, the king lost out in Brazil as well. His son Pedro, opting to stay in that country, led a revolt that proclaimed Brazilian independence on ; as part of this action, he assumed the title of emperor of Brazil.
In any event, later correspondence between the two shows the prince's concern not to disturb his father. The liberal constitution to which the king had sworn loyalty was in effect only for a few months.
Not everyone in Portugal supported liberalism, and an absolutist movement arose. On 27 May, the infante Dom Miguel, instigated by his mother Dona Carlota, led another revolt known as the Vilafrancada , with the intent of restoring absolutism.
John changed the game by supporting his son to avoid his own deposition which was desired by the party of the queen and appeared in public on his birthday alongside his son, who wore a uniform of the National Guard, a military corps that had been disbanded by the liberals, receiving the applause of the militia.
The king personally went to Vila Franca to better administer the uprising, ultimately returning to Lisbon in triumph.
The political climate was undecided, and even the staunchest defenders of liberalism feared to take a strong stand on its behalf.
Before its dissolution, the Cortes protested against any change in the recently approved constitution, but the absolute regime was restored,   the queen's rights re-established, and the king acclaimed for a second time on 5 June.
John repressed demonstrations against this restoration, deported some of the liberals and arrested others, ordered the restoration of judiciary and institutions more in line with the new political orientation and created a commission to draft a basis for a new charter to replace the constitution.
The alliance with the infante Miguel did not bear fruit. Influenced as always by his mother, Miguel led the April Revolt or Abrilada by the Lisbon military garrison on 29 April The revolt started on the pretext of crushing the Freemasons and defending the king from threats of death that the Masons has supposedly made against him, but John was taken into custody at the Bemposta Palace , while several of Miguel's political enemies of Miguel's were also imprisoned elsewhere.
The infante's intent was to force his father to abdicate. Alerted to the situation, the diplomatic corps managed to enter Bemposta Palace.
Those who held the king could not resist such authorities and restored a measure of freedom to the king. On 9 May, on the advice of friendly ambassadors, John pretended to travel to Caxias but, in fact, sought refuge with a British fleet anchored in the port.
From aboard the ship HMS Windsor Castle , he reprimanded his son, deposed him from command of the army, and ordered him to release his political prisoners.
Miguel was exiled. With the defeat of the rebellion, both liberals and absolutists came out into the streets to celebrate the survival of the legitimate government.
Still, this did not dissuade the queen from further conspiracies. The police discovered another rebellion planned for 26 October, on the basis of which John placed his wife under house arrest in Queluz Palace.
At the end of his reign, King John ordered the creation of a free port in Lisbon, but the measure was not implemented. On 5 June he granted amnesty to those involved in the Porto uprising, except for nine officers who were exiled.
On the same day, the old constitution of the kingdom came back into force, and the Cortes reconvened to prepare a new text. The change of constitution faced several obstacles, mainly from Spain and from supporters of the queen.
Portugal's biggest problems at this time, however, related to the independence of Brazil, which had been the country's largest source of wealth.
The loss of Brazil had a great negative impact on the Portuguese economy. An expedition to reconquer the former colony was even considered, but the idea was soon abandoned.
Difficult negotiations and consultations undertaken in Europe in Rio de Janeiro with British mediation and pressure resulted in the final recognition of the independence on 29 August At the same time, the king freed all the Brazilians who were prisoners and authorized trade between both nations.
Brazil was required to pay certain funds that it had borrowed from Portugal. Nothing in the treaty spoke of the succession of the two crowns, but Pedro, still acting as the Prince Royal of Portugal and Algarve, implicitly remained heir to the Portuguese throne.
On 4 March , John returned from the Hieronymites Monastery where he had lunched and retired to Bemposta Palace feeling poorly.
He was racked for several days by symptoms including vomiting and convulsions. He appeared to be getting better, but by way of prudence designated his daughter, the infanta Isabel Maria , as regent.
On the night of 9 March, he took a turn for the worse and died at approximately 5 a. The infanta immediately assumed the internal government of Portugal, and Pedro was recognized as the legitimate heir as Dom Pedro IV of Portugal.
Doctors could not definitively determine a cause of death, but it was suspected that he had been poisoned. Fragments of his heart were rehydrated and submitted to an analysis that detected enough arsenic to kill two people, confirming longstanding suspicions of assassination by poison.
As a youth, John was a retiring figure, heavily influenced by the clergy, and lived surrounded by priests and attending daily Mass in the church.
Nonetheless, Oliveira Lima affirms that rather than being an expression of personal piety, this merely reflected Portuguese culture at that time, and that the king Because of this, he was repeatedly the guest of monks and patron to composers of sacred music , but none of these Epicurean or artistic demonstrations compromised his free thought or denatured his skeptical tolerance.
He made more use of the refectory of the monastery than of its chapel, because [the latter] was about observance and in [the former] one thought of gastronomy, and in terms of observance the pragmatic one was enough for him.
In the Royal Chapel he more took pleasure with the senses than he prayed with the spirit: andantes took the place of meditations. He had a great appreciation of sacred music and was a great reader of works about art, but he detested physical activity.
He appeared to have suffered periodic crises of depression. He suffered from panic attacks when he heard thunder, staying in his rooms with the windows shut and receiving no one.
John's marriage was never a happy one. She became pregnant, and John was suspected of being the father. The case was hushed up, and the young woman was sent to Spain to bear the child.
She gave birth to a daughter, whose name is unknown. The mother lived the rest of her life in nunneries and John supported her financially. In the precarious and spare environment of Rio, the king's personal habits were simple.
In contrast to his relative isolation in Portugal, he became more personally dynamic and interested in nature.
He went hunting and happily slept in a tent or under a tree. He liked the countryside, despite the swarms of mosquitoes and other pests and the scorching heat of the tropics that were detested by the majority of the Portuguese and other foreigners.
John's policies led to far-reaching economic changes, beginning with the opening of the ports and the abolition of the Portuguese commercial monopolies, with the United Kingdom being the great beneficiary.
On the one hand, traders based in Brazil had to face strong foreign competition; on the other, it encouraged the creation of new manufacturing and other economic activities that were previously banned, poor or nonexistent in Brazil.
That image is very varied, "but rarely for good reason. It is not strange that the tribulations of his marriage and family life and the references to his personality and personal customs, inviting easy caricature and circulation of an unflattering, if not comic, tradition.
That work had enormous repercussions, but, according to the critical commentary of Ronaldo Vainfas, "it is a story full of errors of all types, misrepresentations, imprecisions, inventions";  for historian Luiz Carlos Villalta, "it constitutes a broad attack on historical knowledge",  in contrast to director Carla Camurati 's stated intent "to produce a cinematic narrative that would constitute a type of historical novel with pedagogic function and, at the same time, would offer the viewer knowledge of the past and would help, as a people, to think about the present.