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Visa mer Vad är en familj? Familjer med en förälder. Visa mer Äktenskap i Finland. Äkta makars rättigheter och skyldigheter.
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Visa mer Fritid. Att röra sig i naturen. Teater och film. Hobbyer för barn och unga. Visa mer Information om Finland. Expand Problem situations. Coronavirus COVID Financial problems.
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Expand Helsinki. Moving to Helsinki. Expand Living in Helsinki. Settling in Helsinki. Work and Enterprise in Helsinki. Finnish and Swedish in Helsinki.
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Main articles: Administrative divisions of Finland , Regions of Finland , Sub-regions of Finland , Municipalities of Finland , and Historical provinces of Finland.
Main article: Politics of Finland. See also: List of political parties in Finland and Human rights in Finland.
Main article: President of Finland. Main article: Parliament of Finland. See also: List of Female Cabinet Ministers in Finland.
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See also: Nordic energy market , Peat energy in Finland , and Nuclear power in Finland. Main article: Transport in Finland.
A VR Class Sr2 locomotive. Three VR Class Sr3 locomotives. Soviet-made electric locomotive VR Class Sr1 model from The state-owned VR operates a railway network serving all major cities in Finland.
See also: Nordic model. Main article: Tourism in Finland. Main article: Demographics of Finland. Other European 4. Asian 2. African 0.
Other 0. Main articles: Finnish language , Finland Swedish , and Languages of Finland. Main article: Religion in Finland. Orthodox Church 1. Other Christian 0.
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Main articles: Music of Finland , Rock music in Finland , and Sami music. Main articles: Cinema of Finland and Television in Finland.
See also: Lists of Finnish films. See also: Telecommunications in Finland and List of newspapers in Finland. Main article: Finnish cuisine.
Main articles: Public holidays in Finland and Flag days in Finland. Main article: Sport in Finland. Finland portal. Legislation recognises only the short name.
See Geonames. Tilastokeskuksen PX-Web tietokannat. Retrieved 28 March Cite error: The named reference "statfin" was defined multiple times with different content see the help page.
Scandinavian Political Studies. According to the Finnish Constitution, the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval, and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire.
Finland is actually represented by its prime minister, and not by its president, in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union.
The constitutional amendments reduced the powers of the president even further. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD.
Retrieved 11 October Statistics Finland. Retrieved 1 June Retrieved 27 March United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 15 December Institute for the Languages of Finland.
Retrieved 12 August Suomen Kuntaliitto. Retrieved 6 May The New York Times. Retrieved 20 September Muinaisuutemme jäljet.
Helsinki: Gaudeamus. Archived from the original on 6 December New Zealand was the first country in the world to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, in But women did not get the right to run for the New Zealand legislature, until International Monetary Fund.
Retrieved 17 April Archived from the original on 30 October OECD iLibrary. Archived from the original on 30 April Retrieved 6 March Archived from the original on 14 October Archived from the original on 29 October Retrieved 4 February World Economic Forum.
Retrieved 15 May Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 27 November Retrieved 31 March New York: Sustainable Development Solutions Network.
Retrieved 30 April Retrieved 22 January Academia, Inc. Retrieved 6 September Retrieved 29 July Keskiajan suomen kielen dokumentoitu sanasto ensiesiintymisvuosineen.
Suomen museo "The Origins of Finland and Häme". Helsinki: Suomen muinaismuistoyhdistys. Uppslagsverket Finland in Swedish. Retrieved 30 November People, material, culture and environment in the north.
Pirjo Uino of the National Board of Antiquities, ThisisFinland—"Prehistory: The ice recedes—man arrives".
Retrieved 24 June Turun Historiallinen Yhdistys. Ruotsin itämaa. Helsinki: Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland. Suomen varhaiskeskiajan lähteitä.
Historian aitta. Porvoo: Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland. Kansallinen identiteetti Ruotsissa ja Suomessa luvuilla in Finnish.
Finland chronology". Archived from the original on 27 April Retrieved 26 August Archived from the original on 11 April Retrieved 3 November Hakkapeliittoja ja karoliineja — Kuvia Suomen sotahistoriasta in Finnish.
Helsinki: Otava. Kankaanpää Suomalainen ratsuväki Ruotsin ajalla in Finnish. Porvoo: T:mi Toiset aijat.
Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Scandinavia Since Minneapolis, US: University of Minnesota Press. Architecture of Regionalism in the Age of Globalization: Peaks and Valleys in the Flat World.
New York: Routledge. Suomen historia 5 in Finnish. Bank of Finland. Retrieved 7 December World Bank.
Support for capitalism was widespread. In the beginning of the s, Finland's GDP per capita reached the level of Japan and the UK.
Finland's economic development shared many aspects with export-led Asian countries. Significant bilateral trade was conducted with the Soviet Union , but this did not grow into a dependence.
Like other Nordic countries, Finland has liberalized its system of economic regulation since late s. Financial and product market regulations were modified.
Some state enterprises were privatized and some tax rates were altered. This was caused by a combination of economic overheating largely due to a change in the banking laws in which made credit much more accessible , depressed markets with key trading partners particularly the Swedish and Soviet markets as well as local markets, slow growth with other trading partners, and the disappearance of the Soviet bilateral trade.
The crisis was amplified by trade unions' initial opposition to any reforms. A total of over 10 billion euros were used to bail out failing banks, which led to banking sector consolidation.
Finland joined the European Union in The central bank was given an inflation-targeting mandate until Finland joined the euro zone.
Finland was one of the 11 countries joining the third phase of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union , adopting the euro as the country's currency, on 1 January The national currency markka FIM was withdrawn from circulation and replaced by the euro EUR at the beginning of The following table shows the main economic indicators in — Finland's climate and soils make growing crops a particular challenge.
In response to the climate, farmers have relied on quick-ripening and frost-resistant varieties of crops. Most farmland had originally been either forest or swamp, and the soil had usually required treatment with lime and years of cultivation to neutralise excess acid and to develop fertility.
Irrigation was generally not necessary, but drainage systems were often needed to remove excess water.
Until the late nineteenth century, Finland's isolation required that most farmers concentrate on producing grains to meet the country's basic food needs.
In the fall, farmers planted rye; in the spring, southern and central farmers started oats, while northern farmers seeded barley.
Farms also grew small quantities of potatoes, other root crops, and legumes. Nevertheless, the total area under cultivation was still small.
Cattle grazed in the summer and consumed hay in the winter. Essentially self-sufficient, Finland engaged in very limited agricultural trade. This traditional, almost autarkic, production pattern shifted sharply during the late nineteenth century, when inexpensive imported grain from Russia and the United States competed effectively with local grain.
At the same time, rising domestic and foreign demand for dairy products and the availability of low-cost imported cattle feed made dairy and meat production much more profitable.
These changes in market conditions induced Finland's farmers to switch from growing staple grains to producing meat and dairy products, setting a pattern that persisted into the late s.
In response to the agricultural depression of the s, the government encouraged domestic production by imposing tariffs on agricultural imports.
This policy enjoyed some success: the total area under cultivation increased, and farm incomes fell less sharply in Finland than in most other countries.
Barriers to grain imports stimulated a return to mixed farming, and by Finland's farmers were able to meet roughly 90 percent of the domestic demand for grain.
The disruptions caused by the Winter War and the Continuation War caused further food shortages, especially when Finland ceded territory, including about one-tenth of its farmland, to the Soviet Union.
The experiences of the depression and the war years persuaded the Finns to secure independent food supplies to prevent shortages in future conflicts.
After the war, the first challenge was to resettle displaced farmers. Most refugee farmers were given farms that included some buildings and land that had already been in production, but some had to make do with "cold farms," that is, land not in production that usually had to be cleared or drained before crops could be sown.
The government sponsored large-scale clearing and draining operations that expanded the area suitable for farming.
As a result of the resettlement and land-clearing programs, the area under cultivation expanded by about , hectares, reaching about 2. Finland thus came to farm more land than ever before, an unusual development in a country that was simultaneously experiencing rapid industrial growth.
During this period of expansion, farmers introduced modern production practices. The widespread use of modern inputs—chemical fertilisers and insecticides, agricultural machinery, and improved seed varieties—sharply improved crop yields.
Yet the modernisation process again made farm production dependent on supplies from abroad, this time on imports of petroleum and fertilisers.
By domestic sources of energy covered only about 20 percent of farm needs, while in domestic sources had supplied 70 percent of them.
In the aftermath of the oil price increases of the early s, farmers began to return to local energy sources such as firewood. The existence of many farms that were too small to allow efficient use of tractors also limited mechanisation.
Another weak point was the existence of many fields with open drainage ditches needing regular maintenance; in the mids, experts estimated that half of the cropland needed improved drainage works.
At that time, about 1 million hectares had underground drainage, and agricultural authorities planned to help install such works on another million hectares.
Despite these shortcomings, Finland's agriculture was efficient and productive—at least when compared with farming in other European countries.
Forests play a key role in the country's economy, making it one of the world's leading wood producers and providing raw materials at competitive prices for the crucial wood-processing industries.
As in agriculture, the government has long played a leading role in forestry, regulating tree cutting, sponsoring technical improvements, and establishing long-term plans to ensure that the country's forests continue to supply the wood-processing industries.
Finland's wet climate and rocky soils are ideal for forests. The new facility will make it One of the biggest coffee shop chains in Finland, Espresso House, is launching the Nordic region's first an all-you-can-drink option for customers - which Finland's u20 men's ice hockey team have arrived in Edmonton Canada to enter a coronavirus 'bubble' ahead of this year's World Championship Tournament.
But the WATCH: Spectacular last gasp goal seals Helmarit win in Scotland December 3, A last gasp goal in the 95th minute of the game sealed victory for the Finnish women's national football team against Scotland in Huuhkajat arrive in Wales for crucial decider without key players Sport November 16, The Finnish men's national football team arrived in Wales on Monday ahead of a crunch match, without their captain at the helm, or two Ahtisaari Day celebrated for 10th time this year November 11, Ted Urho column: Celebrating the Swedish king who fell off his horse in Germany November 6, Finnish truffle hunters strike black gold with fungus harvest News Now Original November 7, When Labradors Noora and Neea put their specially-trained noses to work, they're striking black gold in southwest Finland - but this black gold isn't Ted Urho column: Celebrating the Swedish king who fell off his horse in Germany Columnists November 6, MTV News: Police investigating far-right plot to target minister, prosecutor December 12, The National Bureau of Investigations NBI says it is investigating a "serious and wide-ranging" plot by far-right activists to carry out criminal offenses "against Say it in Finnish Read article.
Space to think — a journey into Finnish arts and culture Read article. Falling in love with Finnish design Read article. Can you festival? Sustainable Finnish design Read article.
Join the Finns in the sauna Read article. Plan your stay Find more culture products at My Stay. Today, pedestrian reflectors are award-winning design items that enjoy great popularity, especially in dark, Nordic winter conditions.
They can be worn as armbands or attached to jackets, backpacks or baby carriages — there are even reflective dog collars. By the way, the game Clash of Clans, a game by Supercell, another Finnish company, may well be the one to overtake Angry Birds.
Nokia helped put Finland on the international map, and now its former employees are founding numerous innovative startups, including Jolla, a new competitor on the mobile device market see photo.
We visit the exclusive yet modest Finnish Sauna Society just outside Helsinki.Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD. Temporary housing. The famine led JyvГ¤skylГ¤ Finland Russian Empire to ease Jackpot-Code regulations, and investment rose in following decades. You can find interesting wooden architecture elsewhere in the country as well, such as the historical wooden towns of the Coast and Archipelago. Problematiska situationer i Grankulla. In Dos Spiele Deutsch Download, the energy market was around 90 terawatt hours and the peak demand around 15 gigawatts in winter. Leisure in Vantaa. Cattle grazed in the summer and consumed hay in the winter. Mobile Casino Netent in Finland. This phenomenon was given the name " Finlandization " by the West German press. The average total household consumption was 20, euro, out of which housing at around euro, transport at around euro, food and beverages excluding alcoholic at around euro, recreation and culture at around euro. Under det russiske styre var der varierende grad af selvstyre i Finland. Finnish Romani is spoken by some 5,—6, people; it and Finnish Sign Language are also recognized in the constitution.